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Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Triptych of Badia a Rofeno. Asciano (Siena), Museum of Sacred Art

Artist Biography

Born in Siena, Ambrogio Lorenzetti died in 1348 in the same city, probably of the plague. His first known work is dated 1319, written in the lower part of a painting depicting a Madonna in the church of Sant’Angelo at Vico l'Abate, near Florence; his last record is dated November 11, 1347, in which he is mentioned as a member of the Consiglio dei Paciari (Council of the Peacekeepers of the city of Siena).

During his first stay in Florence, during which he painted the Madonna of Vico l'Abate, Ambrogio Lorenzetti is listed in the registers of the Florentine guild of painters, but in 1324 he was back in Siena, although it is not known for how long, where he sold half of a farmland to Francesco Bandini. In the Madonna of Vico l'Abate, the firm, hard lines and the pursuit of volume effects, rather than the rigorous frontal pose, show the influence of Giotto; even in his first work, however, the training of Ambrogio Lorenzetti reveals Sienese elements in the simplicity of the vast surfaces, with large colour fields without chiaroscuro, in the types of the Virgin and Child and the intensity of their contemplation, reminiscent of Duccio, in the use of the Virgin’s byzantine headdress and even in the technique and decoration of the haloes.

Apart from the panel of Vico l'Abate, there are not many surviving works of a certain date: two half-figures of the Bandini Museum in Fiesole and four stories of Saint Nicholas of Bari in the Uffizi Gallery almost certainly belonging to the polyptych for the Church of San Procolo in Florence, on which Cinelli read the date 1332; the frescoes in the Sala dei Nove in the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena, for which there are payment records from 28 April 1338 to 29 May 1339; the Madonna and Child frescoed in the loggia of the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena in 1340; the Presentation of Jesus in the Uffizi Gallery, realized for the small hospital of Madonna Agnese in Siena and brought to Florence in 1822, signed and dated 1342; the Annunciation, in the Pinacoteca of Siena, signed and dated 1344; a small panel depicting the Government, cover of the Siena account book of 1344, in the State Archives of Siena.

The graceful Nursing Madonna of the Seminary of San Francesco, Siena, was probably realized in the period between the panel of Vico l'Abate and the polyptych of San Procolo. A high sense of realistic observation is perceivable especially in the posture of the Virgin bending backwards to act as a counterweight to the Child, and in the Child’s greedy eye and gesture; a direct expression of feelings becomes more intense in the oblique gaze of the Madonna, showing maternal complacency and heartfelt sadness.

This passion, which derives from the influences of Giovanni Pisano and which De Nicola identified with a maternal anxiety for the destiny of her New Born, appears in almost all of Ambrogio’s Madonnas; at times this resigned sadness involves both the Child and Virgin, such as in the panel of the Platt collection, Englewood, which can be dated shortly after 1330, and in the almost contemporary works in the town hall of Massa Marittima and for the convent of Santa Petronilla (currently in the Pinacoteca of Siena); in other paintings, Ambrogio seeks a more passionate contrast of feelings, as in the mentioned Nursing Madonna, in the later Madonna in the upper register of the polyptych of Badia a Rofeno, and in a beautiful small panel in the Pinacoteca di Siena, representing the Virgin in Glory among Angels and Saints.

If it is true that the powerful modelling and majesty of Ambrogio’s early forms gradually fade, the series of his Madonnas reaches the peak of monumentality in the panel of Massa Marittima, in which the painter uses broad colour fields for the images of the Mother and Son.

Architecture and spatial elements are highly significant in the work of A. Lorenzetti, whose vision and unity is achieved mainly through fantasy rather than purely mathematical means, starting however to converge towards a perspective precision that achieves remarkable effects of depth in the Presentation of Jesus of the Uffizi, and reaches its maximum expression in the Annunciation of 1344 (Pinacoteca of Siena), in which for the first time all the orthogonal planes of the floor converge towards a single point. In the frescoes in the church of San Francesco in Siena (previously in the cloister), dated 1331 according to the memory of Tizio, representing The Acceptance of Saint Louis of Toulouse into the Order and The Martyrdom of the Franciscans in Ceuta, the fantasy of the architectures boldly defines spatial planes, whilst in the Effects of Good Governance in the CityBuon Governo (Palazzo Pubblico of Siena) the buildings are rigidly de-structured into polyhedral silhouettes with a rhythm of light and shade, calling to mind comparisons with modern rational geometric synthetism.

The frescoes in the Sala dei Nove (Palazzo Pubblico, Siena), that Ambrogio – defined by Vasari "a gentleman and philosopher rather than a creator" – poetically decorated with various disciplines, expressing the effects of good and bad governance through symbols and realistic representations, are the painter's masterpiece, despite certain programmatic requirements that weaken a few parts. The ancient sense of expressive beauty, his freedom of invention, the moral force formally translated in the artistic construction and the freshness of observation appear of the highest degree, in the context of a monumental landscape, with details of narrated rural life.

The following artworks can also be assigned to A. Lorenzetti: St. Elizabeth of Hungary - Gardner Museum, Boston; St. Agnes - Fogg Museum, Cambridge (U.S.A.), belonging to the same dispersed polyptych as the panel of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary; St. Catherine of Alexandria, Cleveland Museum; Abbey of Monte Siepi, San Galgano: frescoes of a partially preserved decoration, celebrating Saint Galgano (with the collaboration of helpers and vastly restored); London, National Gallery: Heads of Nuns (fragment already in the chapter of San Francesco, Siena); Head of St. Catherine; half figure of the Virgin of the Annunciation (fragments of fresco); Madonna - Cagnola collection, Milan; Madonna - Blumenthal collection, New York; St. Catherine and a Prophet - John Vanderlip collection, Minneapolis (U.S.A.); Madonna - Pompana, chapel of St. Francis (highly damaged and restored); Madonna - Roccalbenga, church of SS. Pietro e Paolo; Pinacoteca of Siena - n. 52, St. Paul - n. 53, St. John the Baptist; Siena, Museum of the Opera del Duomo: St. Francis, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Catherine and St. Romualdo (only partly by A. Lorenzetti); ex-convent of Sant’Agostino, Siena: half-figures of the Redeemer, Saint Lawrence and Saint Augustine (the only remains of the vast paintings described by Ghiberti and Vasari); Siena, Seminary of San Francesco, refectory: head and part of a frieze; Holy Family - Abegg collection, Turin.

 

Description and History of the artwork

The polyptych consists of a two-level structure, composed of six painted and gilt panels assigned to Ambrogio Lorenzetti, enriched by an elaborate carved and polychrome frame dated to the early decades of the 16th century. The central panel of the lower order (123.5 x 105.5 cm) depicts Saint Michael the Archangel in the guise of a young warrior fighting a 'fantastic' seven-headed dragon. On the left is Saint Bartholomew and on the right Saint Benedict, painted on two wooden supports of the same size (103.8 x 43.5 cm). In the centre of the upper order, on a large triangular panel (88.5 x 91.8 cm) are the Madonna and Child, inserted in a gilt trilobed arch surrounded by green. On the sides of the Virgin, two smaller triangular panels (35 x 43 cm) depict Saint John the Evangelist and the young Saint Louis of Toulouse.

The particular structure, which can be dated to the first half of the 14th century, and its subsequent transformation in the 16th century, have been subject of discussion with various hypotheses regarding the original appearance of the work.

The polyptych, first classified by Brogi as the work of 'unknown' Sienese artists of the 11th century, was first assigned to Ambrogio Lorenzetti by De Nicola, who identified this work with the panel mentioned by Vasari for Monte Oliveto di Chiusuri. He hypothesized that the polyptych had been modified in the 16th century and that the panel depicting Saint Michael had been converted from trapezoidal to square and the panels of the upper order had been modified into triangular shapes.

According to Carli, the work arrived to Badia a Rofeno from another church or monastery named after Saint Michael, or in which the Saint was particularly venerated. This would explain the transformation of Saint Bartholomew into Saint Jacob, with the addition of a pilgrim’s staff, later removed; Saint Jacob being the Patron Saint, with Saint Christopher, of the Abbey of Badia a Rofeno. According to Carli, the six panels formed a single polyptych, in which the gilt corners at the top right and left of the central panel would have been added later. This hypothesis is also validated by the fact that the decorative motifs on the added gilt parts are different and the Madonna originally had the present triangular shape.

The polyptych is unanimously attributed to Ambrogio and his workshop, with the exception of Setti who assigns it to the Master of the Saint Augustine Altarpiece, and Rowley who considers it work of the Master of Rofeno. According to Rowley, the Madonna, whose gothic trilobed decoration can be seen beneath the green colour covering the gilding, was part of a polyptych with four saints, now in the Opera del Duomo of Siena, also because of the similarity in the gold punching. Moreover, in Rowley’s opinion, the two side triangular planks, conferring a triangular shape to the panel depicting the Madonna, were added later. This hypothesis proved wrong during the restoration, as the radiography shows that the two side triangles were part of the same panel, due to the presence of connecting cavities between the panels of the support and the presence a single piece of cloth applied upon the panel before the gesso ground.

Another hypothesis of reconstruction of the polyptych was proposed by Silvia Tampieri, who suggests that the artwork was completed by a predella in three or five small panels. The space between the lateral cusps and the Saints beneath is hypothetically resolved by the insertion of small figures of Saints or Prophets. She also claims that the panel of the Archangel was originally square, and hypothesizes that the triangular spaces on the sides of all the three lower panels could have been decorated with painted figures or with a pastiglia relief enriched with decorations. In our opinion, the outline of the panel of Saint Michael was certainly square because of the continuity of the wood of the support and perimeter frames, and the same type of gilding was found on all of the background. However, through the interpretation of our investigations, no traces of previous decorations were detected, neither traces of pastiglia or residues of paint above the gold.

The framing (230 x 239 cm) is attributed to Fra Raffaello da Brescia, an Olivetan monk and carver who worked in the first two decades of the 16th century with his brother Fra Giovanni da Verona in the church of Monte Oliveto Maggiore. The structure consists of a frame with grotesque motifs connecting the three paintings of the lower order, with two inserted two horizontal panels, placed above the side panels, concluding the rectangular shape, with the same kind of decoration. The perimeter of the three upper panels is enriched with a gilt carving and with two small pinnacles in the shape of candelabra that mark the division. The entire work rests upon a predella with classical motifs; at the centre there are a polychrome carved figure of a Benedictine monk, an incense burner and a ship. The side pillars, above which there are two non-coeval pinnacles also in the shape of candelabra, are carved, and depict musical instruments on the front and woodworking instruments on the sides.

 

Previous interventions

The conservation problems that led to move the polyptych to the Paintings Department of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure Laboratory for an intervention, are partially related to the consequences due to an excess of humidity, occurred during 2005, from the wall of the room of Palazzo Corboli Museum in Asciano (Siena) on which the panel was placed, with the consequent increase of relative humidity in the exhibiting environment.

The analysis of the changes made in the 16th century helped to clarify how the structure and polychrome layers had been modified; it was also necessary to define the succession of restoration work carried out in the last century.

In the 20th century the painting underwent three interventions: in 1910, in 1950 and in 1996. From the study of surveys and reports, the conservation problems appear to have been recurrent every forty years or so, accentuated by stresses due to the environmental situation. Importantly, apart from localized interventions on the support, the artwork, despite its frequent conservation treatments, has never been completely dismantled from its 16th century frame.

The comparison between the photographs of the various restoration campaigns and the conservation conditions before our intervention, confirmed that defects of adhesion and cohesion between the ground and paint layers always involved the same parts of the artwork.

 

Artistic technique

With the disassembly of the 16th century frame and the discovery, underneath, of the original 14th century frame, it was possible to determine that the triptych was conceived as a unitary project. The frame consists of a smooth strip about five centimetres wide with a moulding towards the inside of the panels. The decoration is simple but also refined: silver leaf upon red bole was painted with geometric modules of orange diamonds (red lead), alternated with a green sgraffito decoration (malachite and copper resinate).

The silver leaf of the frame is not varnished with any mecca or other protective varnish; it presented limited traces of oxidation, having been protected for more than five hundred years from atmospheric agents.

A cushioning layer of the same type of canvas entirely covers all the flat parts of the panels and is also continuously applied on the mouldings and flat parts of the frame.

The ground, applied in two successive layers, is composed of gypsum with a modest amount of animal glue, with very little carbon black, earth and ochre pigments and a few grains of celestine. The comparison between the ground layers of all the samples taken from different panels does not reveal substantial differences.

The modest quantity of animal glue explains, from a conservative point of view, the conditions of weakening and degradation of the ground layers that contributed to the detaching and lifting of ground and paint layers on the entire surface.

The incisions mainly define the areas to be gilded around the areas to be painted and are therefore mainly along the outline of the figures, but were also used to define the main lines of the drapery of the Virgin's mantle. Incisions on robes were realized to locate the folds of the draperies, as the underdrawing would be progressively hidden by the succession of paint layers. The figure of the Archangel, with its elaborate and lively contours, and of the dragon are often alternated with gold leaf and therefore have many more incision lines than the other panels, in which the outlines are simpler.

The underdrawing appears clearly defined on the two central panels, realized with linear strokes and freehand. The strokes are simpler on the faces of the Virgin, of the Saints and the Archangel and more elaborate in details such as for the folds of the the Archangel’s cloak or in the decorations of the archangel's robe, in which the lines do not exactly correspond to the final version.

The red bole, probably applied in various diluted layers, has the same thickness in all of the samples (from 5 to 10µm); pure gold leaves, i.e. without copper or silver content, were applied upon the bole. No significant differences were observed in the bole and gold between the two upper corners and the rest of the background in the panel of St. Michael. This confirms that the panel was completed in its square form, despite the punching pattern continuing diagonally on the inner edge of the upper triangles: this is probably due to a modification during the realization of the artwork. The same motif can be found on the inner edges of each panel composing the polyptych, whilst on the panel of the Madonna there are only a few traces of this kind of decoration along the perimeter between the gold and the green background.

The creativity of Ambrogio is expressed in his vivid use of colours, with a predominant combination of blue, red and yellow in dense, warm tones, enhanced by backgrounds and decorations in gold and silver. Pure azurite, sometimes lightened with white lead, is the pigment used for the blues: the mantle of the Madonna, the robes of Saint Louis and of Saint John, the robe and the wings of the Archangel and the sky beneath his feet. An underpaint of indigo and lead white with carbon black covers the preparatory drawing of the Madonna's mantle. A final blue layering defines the colour of the mantle, darkened in the folds with the addition of carbon black, using the incisions as a guide, and lightened with white lead in the parts in light, according to the technique described by Cennino Cennini of painting with three shades of colour.

In contrast to the blue is the bright red colour of Saint Michael's cloak, painted with cinnabar and lightened with white lead; red lake defines the folds. The wings of the dragon are also a bright red, painted with minium. Red lake upon on a cinnabar field defines the Virgin's robe and the folds of the Child's robe. Red lake blends with purple and green (green earth) in the mantle of Saint Bartholomew and defines the faux marble decoration of the floor at the foot of the two side saints.

On the armour, on the greaves and the helmet of Saint Michael the painter used green earth, with a coarse grain size, lightened with lead white. The terre verte used in this figure has a bluer tone than the green earth used elsewhere, for example as an underpaint for the fleshtones.

The other green backgrounds are composed of copper-based pigments. The dragon, surrounded by a marked black line, is painted with yellow ochre, as the sleeves of Saint Bartholomew. Earth pigments mixed with lead white define the robe of Saint Benedict and the mitre of Saint Louis. The paint layers are bound with egg tempera and were applied gradually, layer upon layer, with small brushstrokes that follow the modelling in the fleshtones.

The fleshtones are created with small brushstrokes of lead white, ochre and red, above an underpaint of green earth. In some of the cheeks, minium is present (face of the Virgin of and Saint Benedict), whilst in others cinnabar is present (Saint Bartholomew, Saint John the Evangelist), also used on the lips of Saint Michael. The brown of the hair is made with earth pigments, lead white and red pigments.

The very worn green background of the panel of the Madonna and Child contains copper resinate, with little malachite; the same composition can be found in the two horizontal bands of the 16th century frame above Saint Bartholomew and Saint Benedict (whilst the blue of all the other frame backgrounds is made of azurite lightened with white lead, on an indigo base). The green background surrounding the Virgin is probably due to an extensive 16th-century repainting, applied upon the ground layers of the panel, of which the original pictorial layers are not known, nor are known the reasons for such a localised deterioration. With regards to the original layers, the presence of gold is to be rejected, since no traces of bole or gold leaf have been found, or any signs of anchorage of a gilt pastiglia decoration above. The original gold is only present in the trilobate shape, although part of the Virgin's halo extends beyond it.

In the metal leaf decorations, both gold and silver are present, in certain cases coupled together. On the wings of the dragon and on the Archangel’s cloak, traces of a silver decoration – although altered and with many losses - can help us imagine the original richness of the painting, with a different reflection of light upon different kinds of metal leaf.

 

Conservation conditions and intervention

For the fixing of the ground and paint layers, it was considered necessary to remove the 16th century frame, following a careful analysis of the X-ray and the study of the connecting elements, in order to be able to work on each panel of the triptych.

During the dismantling, the whole surface of the painting was provisionally faced with cyclododecane, a material that undergoes sublimation at room temperature: its protective effects thus lasted only for the time necessary for moving the artwork during the dismantling of the frame.

After the removal of Japanese tissue, many types of lifting could be observed. The gesso ground layer had very little animal glue and lacked cohesion; the underlying cushioning canvas had poor adhesion to the support. Besides blisters between the ground and the canvas with evident cupping, many ridge-like blisters all over the painted surface revealed cleavage between the ground and paint layers. Animal glue was used for local injections, following the principle of compatibility with the original materials, to fix the lifted paint layers and retrieve a minimum degree of surface flatness, using a heated spatula. Hide glue was used also for the general consolidation of the gesso and for the detachments between ground and paint layers, under vacuum pressure.

For the cleaning intervention, the main issues were related to the need of maintaining an even level of surface layers upon the various panels. In other words, it was necessary to work on each panel, with a different distribution of non-original materials and repainting, in relation to the specific conservation conditions of the paint layers of each panel, bearing in mind the entire artwork. The intervention was carried out with the aid of a microscope, but always keeping in mind the overall perception of the artwork.

The study and interpretation of the preliminary analyses helped to understand the conservation conditions of the paint layers, as well as the nature and uneven distribution of the overlying materials. The layering of these materials was deduced from the information provided by scientific investigations compared with solubility tests: there were two film-forming surface layers. The outer one, with a weak fluorescence under UV, contained traces of wax and was presumably applied in the last conservation treatment.

After defining the solubility parameters, the mixture of identified solvents was thickened, with the formulation of a solvent-surfactant gel, thus combining the action of organic solvents with the specific action of water, as with surfactant capacity and a slight alkalinity of the other components. Beneath the outermost layer there were traces of an older, very discontinuous varnish, with a yellowish UV fluorescence, on which we selectively and gradually intervened with neutral organic solvents formulated in a solvent-surfactant gel or supported with stearic emulsion, according to the areas to be treated.

The gold backgrounds and the gilding of the 16th century frame, covered with various atmospheric particulate matter deposition layers, with also bitumen and wax due to coating and protection of the metal leaf, were cleaned with fatty emulsions and surfactants in different formulations. The non-original water and mordant gilt parts, carried out during the previous treatments, were removed, as well as an overpainting of lead white and cobalt blue applied on the green background of the panel of the Madonna and upon the azurite based blue of the 16th century frame.

For the filling, our research focused on the identification of a filler with mechanical properties compatible with those of the surrounding layers, flexible, not excessively rigid, resistant and able to maintain these characteristics over time and above all with a controlled reactivity to RH fluctuations. The fillers were chosen according to the painting’s surrounding materials, making a distinction between a filler of cellulosic layers such as wood, and ground gesso layers. An inert cellulose based filler was used in the joints of the central panel with Saint Michael, in the disconnected joints of the wooden frame and inside woodworm burrows. The filler was inserted, waiting for a complete drying of each application; the final outermost layer was filled with a gesso mixture, more compatible with the surrounding gesso ground layers and more suitable for the application of inpainting.

After levelling the surface, particular attention was paid to the texture of the original painting surface, with its craquelure pattern - due to its artistic technique and its aging - and its slightly thicker brushstrokes. This kind of texture was reproduced upon the lacunae, thus helping to reduce differences due to incident light. Being able to recognise the intervention is however possible thanks to a differentiated inpainting.

The photograph after the filling shows the general distribution of losses, which interfere in the perception of the painting. Large losses in the centre of the panel depicting the Archangel, in the lower parts of the small cusps with Saint John and Saint Louis of Toulouse and in the panel with Saint Bartholomew have led to the disappearance of significant formal elements. The insertion of these losses compromise the balance of the composition, as extraneous elements in terms of shape, colour and surface texture. The smaller losses, present over the entire surface of the triptych, could instead be reconnected both formally and in terms of colour.

In the lacunae where the loss of formal values was limited and could easily be connected without invention or falsification, the technique of selezione cromatica was adopted - i.e. hatched inpainting carried out with pure, non-mixed colours, following the direction of the lines of the drawing of each specific part. For the losses of the gold backgrounds, shell gold was applied in hatched lines with three subsequent applications of hatched lines of yellow, red and green with a transparent brown, to increase the reflectance of the surface.

On the contrary, in the lacunae with the loss of significant formal parts, it was decided to use the astrazione cromatica inpainting technique, with the subsequent application of cross-hatched lines in 4 shades, to achieve an average chromatic value of the entire painting, through the use of additive colour synthesis (yellow, red, green and black).

The visualization of the astrazione cromatica intervention through digital images proved to be a useful and versatile working tool.  On various mockups with a gesso ground, four-colour drafts were applied with different media. The virtual integration of the selected samples allowed us to evaluate the validity of the intervention before its practical execution on the artwork, and to propose in advance the appropriate variations and corrections. Whilst in the large losses of the panels of the Archangel, Saint John and Saint Louis of Toulouse the solution seemed satisfactory, in the loss of the the lower part of the panel depicting Saint Bartholomew, the inclusion of the “virtual” astrazione cromatica appeared rather dominant within the artwork, with an insufficiently balanced relationship with the original part of the painting, in which it appeared to almost prevail. Consequently, it was decided to reconnect this part with a selezione cromatica integration.

On the losses of the original frame, silver leaf was applied with a water-gilding technique above a layer of red-orange coloured bole. After burnishing the leaf, the hatched lines carried out with watercolours and varnish colours suggested, where possible, a modular succession of geometric decorations. In areas where a reconnection would have been arbitrary, for example on the missing words of the names of Saint Benedict and Saint Bartholomew, the inpainting was carried out reaching the tone of the partially oxidized silver, exploiting the shine of the underlying silver leaf opportunely differentiated thanks to the texture of the overlying brushstrokes.

A similar solution was adopted in the pictorial restoration of the 16th century frame.

The varnishing of the painting and of the 16th-century frame was carried out by brush with mastic resin in turpentine, with different dilutions for the paint layers and gold backgrounds. The final protective layer, with Laropal K-80 ketone resin diluted in White Spirit D40, was applied with a spray, with different applications on the painting and on the frame.

 

Colophon

The restoration work was realised by the Department of Easel Paintings of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence, from 2006 to 2011.

Directors: Marco Ciatti and Cecilia Frosinini

Technical Directors and Conservation Treatment: Luisa Gusmeroli for the ground and paint layers, with the collaboration of Livia Gordini and Elisa Todisco for the frame; for the wooden support Ciro Castelli, Andrea Santacesaria, Mauro Parri.

X-radiograph: Alfredo Aldrovandi, Ottavio Ciappi (OPD)
High resolution IR reflectography: Roberto Bellucci (OPD) in collaboration with INO-CNR, Florence, Cultural Heritage Group, director Luca Pezzati
Chemical investigations: Carlo Galliano Lalli (Scientific Laboratory, OPD), with the collaboration of Darya Andrash, Federica Innocenti: analyses FTIR, SEM/EDS
Photographs - UV Fluorescence, False Colour Infrared, B&W Infrared: Alfredo Aldrovandi, Fabrizio Cinotti (OPD), Annette Keller
X-ray Fluorescence (XRF): Claudio Seccaroni, Pietro Moioli (ENEA, Rome)
Fibre Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS): Lara Boselli, Mascia Migliari, Marcello Picollo, Bruno Radicati (IFAC/ CNR Florence)
C14 Analysis: Pier Andrea Mandò, Mariaelena Fedi (INFN, Florence)
Photogrammetric surveys and IT documentation: Culturanuova Srl - Massimo Chimenti with Sandra Damianelli, Sara Rutigliano and Giacomo Tenti

Conferences

Symposium: Il restauro e la ricollocazione del Trittico di Badia a Rofeno di Ambrogio Lorenzetti - Saturday 18 June, Mediateca, Via Fiume, Asciano

 

Links

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMPLCJ_PpRA

https://www.finestresullarte.info/747n_ambrogio-lorenzetti-trittico-badia-a-rofeno-asciano.php

http://foglidarte.blogspot.com/2011/04/siena-il-trittico-di-badia-rofeno-torna.html

 

Bibliography

D. Kunzelman, L. Gusmeroli, A. Keller, Immaginare il restauro: l’integrità pittorica del dipinto realizzata grazie al ritocco virtuale, in Le fasi finali del restauro delle opere policrome mobili, CESMAR7 Conference proceedings (Trento 2010), Padova, 2010, pp.137-144

Ciro Castelli, Marco Ciatti, Luisa Gusmeroli, Mauro Parri, Andrea Santacesaria, Il restauro del trittico di Ambrogio Lorenzetti di Badia a Rofeno dal Museo di Asciano, OPD Restauro, 23 (2011), pp. 11-41

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, Il Trittico di Badia a Rofeno. Studi, Restauro e Ricollocazione, eds. Marco Ciatti and Luisa Gusmeroli, Problemi di Conservazione e Restauro, 34, Florence, Edifir, 2012

Per la conservazione dei dipinti. Esperienze e progetti del laboratorio dell'OPD (2002-2012), ed. by M. Ciatti, Florence, Edifir, 2013