• Italiano

Raphael, La Madonna dell'Impannata. Florence, Palatine Gallery, Uffizi Galleries

Artist Biography

"Raphael was born in Urbino, an illustrious Italian town, in 1483, on Good Friday at three o'clock in the morning, to a father named Giovanni de' Santi, a painter of no great excellence", wrote Giorgio Vasari in the 1568 edition of his Lives of the Artists, in the chapter dedicated to the artist. The young Raphael learned his first lessons of drawing and painting in his father's workshop, revealing an early and great aptitude for painting.

The environment of Urbino and then Umbria were decisive for his training, as it gave him the opportunity to know not only the works of Flemish artists, but also those of Piero della Francesca, Signorelli and Pinturicchio. Of fundamental importance were also his connections with the workshop of Perugino, of whom, according to Vasari, Raphael was a pupil; today it is rather believed that Raphael worked in his workshop as a collaborator, rather than as a pupil. The strong influence of Perugino’s workshop on Raphael is however unquestionable: in fact, in several works realized by Perugino and his workshop, critics have often identified various interventions by the hand of Raphael.

Between 1499 and 1504, as his fame grew, he worked between Perugia and Città di Castello, with a brief interlude in Siena, where he went following an invite on behalf of Pinturicchio. Enticed by the news of the great task of the decoration of the Salone dei Cinquecento in Palazzo Vecchio, entrusted to Leonardo and Michelangelo on behalf of the Gonfaloniere Pier Soderini, he went to Florence in 1504, recommended by Giovanna Feltria, Duchess of Urbino. His stay in Florence lasted until 1508, but this did not interrupt his contacts with Umbria, from which he continued to receive commissions from both Perugia and Urbino.

The fervent Florentine cultural and artistic climate of the early Sixteenth century allowed him to make important friendships, not only with wealthy citizens, from whom he received important commissions, but also with several Florentine artists such as Ridolfo del Ghirlandaio, Fra Bartolomeo and Aristotele San Gallo. With these artists he certainly studied the cartoons of Leonardo and Michelangelo and he attended the workshop of Baccio d'Agnolo. Raphael’s stay in Florence was of fundamental importance in his training: not only for the opportunity of studying the great masters of the Fifteenth century, but also, as already mentioned, Leonardo and Michelangelo, both present in Florence during those years, and who were fundamental for the definition of Raphael’s style and poetics.

In 1508 he went to Rome following the call of Pope Julius II, who had started the great urban and artistic renovation of the city in those years, to participate in the decoration of the new Vatican rooms. This assignment marked a decisive turning point in the career of the painter who, from this moment on, became one of the most sought-after artists in Rome. Following Bramante's death in 1514, he was appointed architect in charge of the construction of the new Basilica of Saint Peter, a position that made him illustrious also as an architect. He died in 1520, and was buried in the Pantheon according to his own will.

 

History of the artwork

Even in the the first edition of the Vite of 1550, Vasari inserted in Raphael's biography a description of the Madonna dell'Impannata, also relating on its commission and events related to its first owners: "and likewise he [Bindo Altoviti] sent to Florence a painting of Our Lady, which is now in the palace of the Grand Duke Cosimo, in the chapel of the new apartments, which were built and painted by me, where it serves as altarpiece.

In it is painted a very old Saint Anne, seated, and holding out to Our Lady her Son, the features of whose countenance, as well as the whole of his nude form, are so beautiful that with his laughter he rejoices whoever looks at Him; besides which, Raffaello depicted, in painting the Madonna, all the beauty that can be imparted to the aspect of a Virgin, with the complement of chaste humility in the eyes, honour in the brow, grace in the nose, and virtue in the mouth; not to mention that her clothing is such as to reveal infinite simplicity and dignity. And, indeed, I do not think that there is anything better to be seen than this whole work. There is a nude young Saint John, seated, with a female saint, who is likewise very beautiful”. The current title of the artwork, the Impannata, derives from the window in the background covered by a light-coloured cloth stretched over a wooden frame, also described by Vasari: “and for background there is a household interior, in which he painted a linen−covered window that gives light to the room wherein are the figures”.

Following the confiscation of the properties of the Altoviti family on behalf of Cosimo I in 1568, the painting was moved from the above mentioned chapel of Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where it had been sent by Altoviti himself, to the the chapel of the quarters of Leo X within the same palace; it was then displayed in the Tribuna of the Uffizi from 1589; and then in the Palatine Gallery in Palazzo Pitti from 1697. Vasari's praises, also repeated by Borghini in 1584, conditioned all the critics until the Eighteenth century. 

In 1585 Raffaello Borghini, in his Riposo, describes the painting with similar words: "and for Bindo Altoviti he realized his portrait, when he was young, which is kept beautifully: and likewise he made him a painting of Our Lady, which he sent to Florence, and is now in the palace of the Grand Duke Francis, in the chapel of the new rooms, in which a very old Saint Anne is depicted sitting down, handing to Our Lady her Son, of such beauty in his nakedness and in his features, that in laughing he gives joy to those looking at him, and the Virgin could not be more modest, nor more beautiful: there is a naked young Saint John, and another most beautiful saint, and in the background there is a household interior, in which he has feigned a window covered with a cloth, which lights the room, wherein the figures are”. In 1799 the work was chosen by the Napoleonic administration among the nucleus of masterpieces to be sent to Paris where it was exhibited, first at the Louvre and then at the Palais du Luxembourg from 1802 to 1815.

Two preparatory drawings of the work are known, one depicting the Madonna with Child and Saint Anne (Windsor Castle, Royal Collections Library; n. 12742); another is a study depicting the Child and the young St. John (Berlin, Kupferstchkabinett; n. KdZ 2231), in which the figures have a similar position to the final version. The artwork has been dated between 1511 and 1515. The painting is related to the period of Raphael's Roman production and critics have discussed a lot whether it may be an autograph work or rather the result of a collaboration within the master's workshop.

The presence of Saint Anne in the scene, represented receiving the Child or passing him to the Virgin, however in a gesture of intermediation, might be of ancient origin, resuming a traditional iconography known as “di Sant’Anna Metterza", that is, of Saint Anne acting as a third party; or also meaning, from the Tuscan dialect of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, "She who is third for me", being for a worshipper in third position in the hierarchy of the divine generation.

The identification of the elderly Saint as Saint Elizabeth, not asserted in Vasari's description, has sometimes been advanced due to the presence of the young Saint John the Baptist, that the elderly Saint seems to counterbalance, in a sort of evocation of the Gospel episode of the Visitation, here adapted into a more familiar event, a visit between mothers of holy children. In the absence of a historical attestation for Saint Elizabeth, however, there does not seem to be a reason for contradicting Vasari’s description and therefore it seems more plausible to identify the elderly Saint as Saint Anne.

The identification of the young Saint, on whose identity even Vasari does not comment, does not seem to find any correspondence among possible evangelical characters: even her position, slightly external from the actual meeting scene, accompanying the figure of the elderly woman, leads towards an interpretation related to a devotional-mystical aspect, rather to the patronage of the painting.

The existence of a drawing possibly related to the preliminary version of the artwork, with the group of the Madonna and Child with Saint John, but also representing the scene of the Mystical Marriage of Saint Catherine, has led to the hypothesis that the young Saint behind Saint Anne could be the martyr of Alexandria. However, not only unequivocally ascribable attributes of the Martyr Catherine are absent but other elements typical of the scene of the Mystical Marriage are also missing. The Saint does not hold out her finger for the gesture of ringing, as is usual, whilst her left hand indicates the Child, in a specular gesture to that of the young Saint John, both gestures of recognition and profession of faith.

On the other hand, the only distinctive element of the young Saint is her headdress, consisting of a sort of interwoven cap, fastened under her chin. The comparison with other works by Raphael, in which some ladies wear chinstraps and caps to fix their veils (for example in the Transfiguration or in the frescoes of the Fire in the Borgo) indicates a difference with this kind of accessories depicted by the artist. The Saint’s headdress is therefore not an element of the clothing of the time or a stylized style inspired by the antique. If it is a possible distinctive element of the Saint, it could lead to identify her with Saint Bridget of Sweden, the Swedish mystic who spent many years in Rome in the second half of the 14th century, dying there in 1373. Her visions, as is known, greatly influenced the religious spirit of the period, and, thanks to their expressive language, strongly influenced also the iconography of the period. Saint Bridget was also responsible for the creation of a religious order that was called of the Holy Saviour, the seat of which was in the building where the founder lived, near Campo de' Fiori, transformed into a convent and church dedicated to the Saint herself. Since their foundation, the Brigidine Sisters could be recognized for their typical headdress with two bands that formed a cross on the head, the arms of which were joined by a circular band tied under the chin. And the headdress of St. Bridget was, for centuries, one of the most venerated relics of Christendom.

The possible identification of the young Saint of the Madonna dell'Impannata and Saint Bridget can be further asserted for other two reasons: the proximity between Palazzo Altoviti in Rome and the church dedicated to Saint Bridget, and the fact that in 1513 the church was renovated and re-equipped, in a date therefore extremely close to the date of the realization of the Impannata.

The painting is realized with the technique of oil on a wooden panel of poplar wood (160 x 126 cm with an average thickness of 33 mm), consisting of three planks 50, 42 and 34 cm wide. The dimensions are larger than those of a panel intended for private devotion, yet smaller than those of an altarpiece. On the back of the painting there are two dovetail crosspieces, 9 cm wide, and placed 18.5 cm from the higher and lower edges, and four butterfly-shaped wooden inserts along the joint of the first two planks.

The reasons that led to the study and restoration work on the Madonna dell'Impannata were mainly two: a chromatic discolouring of the surface, which had darkened considerably due to the yellowing of the non-original overlying varnishes, and the disconnection and consequent fracture between two of the planks composing the panel support, with consequent losses of paint film and blisters of ground and paint layers, already restored in the past. The analysis project, preliminary to the conservation project, examined the previous investigations, in order to study the artwork by means of a new campaign of diagnostic investigations.

 

Conservation conditions

The restoration of the artwork was regarded necessary due to the disconnection along the joint of two planks, which had produced blisters in the ground and paint layers that had been filled and inpainted in previous interventions, documented in the conservation history of the artwork.

In addition, the degree of yellowing and alteration of the varnish compromised the legibility of the paint layers which resulted dimmed by the varnish, which did not allow to see the chromatic tones and tended to flatten the effects of depth and levels. The varnish was uneven and was particularly altered in the areas of the hair of the Child, on the garments of the female Saints and in the darker parts. In particular, the conditions of the Virgin’s mantle appeared compromised: in the central part, beneath the Child, a traction crackle of its paint layers, due to the presence of two overlying layers of paint film, had led to a morphological and chromatic alteration of the surface, whose chromatic and formal values were even more difficult to appreciate due to further overlying altered overpaints.

 

Conservation history

The research carried out by Serena Padovani on the conservation history of the work allowed to understand that the split on the panel was already present in the Eighteenth century, as well as when the painting was sent to France, and the related documents that were found reported the deteriorated conditions of the paint layers in the shaded parts of the Virgin's mantle.

The painting was taken into care in 1938 on behalf of Augusto Vermehren (G.R. 728 – internal restoration number); Pietro Sanpaolesi reported that the panel "is very yellow and its pictorial qualities are hidden under a layer of opaque varnishes". An X-ray was taken in the occasion "of the need for some localized consolidation interventions that had to be done on the painting".

On the occasion of the exhibition Raffaello a Firenze, in 1984, a restoration of the artwork was carried out by Alfio del Serra (G.R. 9524). The restoration report describes the presence of an "amber-yellow patina" and losses of colour on the Virgin's mantle, whose conservation conditions were precarious, and also refers to the split of two boards.

 

Diagnostic investigations

The diagnostic analyses confirmed the results of the X-ray carried out in 1938 under the direction of Piero Sanpaolesi, which revealed on the right a figure of seated Saint Joseph seen in profile, with a reed in his right hand, and a young St. John, whose head and shoulder can be seen leaning against Saint Joseph’s drapery, figures that do not appear in the final version of the work. Other elements are slightly shifted, compared to the final version: the head of the Virgin, the body of the Child and the young Saint – without her headdress, and with her right hand only drafted.

In 1984 the painting was examined by means of another X-ray in plates, which confirmed and provided further elements revealing a long elaboration of the artwork; however the figures painted below the final version, were not detected in the Infrared-reflectogram.

In our campaign, the radiograph of 1984 allowed to study the construction of the support; the disconnections between the joints were evidenced in raking light; the variations in the preliminary drawings related to the various levels of the composition were studied in more depth by means of the infrared reflectogram, whilst the X-ray fluorescence analysis, carried out both on single points and areas, was carried out to understand the pigments used in the original paint layers, as well as in the non-original overlying paint layers. Consequently, the chemical and stratigraphic analyses were limited to a minimal number of samples, re-analysing firstly the samples taken in 1984, on the occasion of the exhibition on Raphael in Florence.

The new digital X-radiograph, carried out before the recent OPD restoration, allowed to define the details of underlying figures with a higher degree of precision, thanks to technical improvements of the technologies used. The underlying figures are actually painted and not just drafted. The thickness of the underlying paint film is also evident in the raking light examination, but only for the figure of Saint Joseph, whose head contour and profile intersect with the overlying figure of the young Saint John. Through the traction crackles in the blue mantle of the Virgin, traces of the flesh of the underlying version of the young Saint John below can be observed.The radiopacity of the lead white of the fleshtones allowed to clearly understand, in the X-radiograph, how the figures of the first version were arranged, and the nature of the pigments used to realize them was studied by means of the XRF analysis by areas.

These measurements allowed to obtain information on the pigments used in the underlying figures, thus leading to hypotheses on the colours of certain details, concealed by the artist in the final version of the composition.  The fleshtones were obtained with lead white and small quantities of iron-based pigments (earth pigments and/or ochre) and of cinnabar. "The presence of these elements could be due, at least in part, to the contribution of the underlying layers, since the whole figure of the young Saint John was added in the final phase of the elaboration of the composition, covering other figures. The same can be said for the presence of the element tin, detected in combination with mercury in correspondence of the fleshtones of the young Saint John, as well as in the adjacent areas. The presence of tin and mercury, sometimes associated with large quantities of iron, would seem to indicate an orange-brown colour for the underlying field, a colour perfectly in accordance with the mantle of Saint Joseph, a figure that can be detected in the radiographic image". (P. Moioli, C. Seccaroni, report on the X-ray fluorescence analysis, Raphael, Madonna dell'Impannata, Florence, Palatine Gallery. Characterization of the pigments by means of X-ray fluorescence).

The reflectogram revealed a very detailed preparatory drawing, thanks to the multispectral scanner that acquires an image in 12 wavelengths, between 952 and 2262 nanometres. The images thus acquired allowed to detect elements in the drawing and in the paint layers emerging at different wavelengths, revealing thus two further important changes in the artwork.  In addition to the young Saint John and to Saint Joseph, two further figures were discovered, resulting clearly detectable at a wavelength of 1700 nanometres: one had been drawn and the had been only partially painted, thus adding further elements confirming the complicated genesis of the painting.

The first figure consists only of a drawing of an old man in profile, placed in the upper right part of the painting, in correspondence of the window, presumably a sketch of another version of the head Saint Joseph, slightly inclined.  The drawing is realised with free-hand linear strokes of carbon black; the hair, an ear, and a double tracing of the figure’s nose are clearly outlined. The lines are dark and have a grainy appearance that can be related to the use of graphite.

The reflectogram also allowed to discover the presence of a head placed above the shoulder of the young female Saint, a profile of a female head with worn up hair. The rest of the figure was not detected by the reflectogram, as it might be screened by the overlying pigments used for the paint layers of the young female Saint's robes.

 

Artistic technique

The ground layers found in the Madonna dell’Impannata are coherent with the technique typically used by Raphael, consisting of two layers of gypsum and animal glue, with the presence also of earth and ochre pigments and carbon black; on the surface, there is a thicker stratification of animal glue.

Above the ground layers, there is a first thin priming layer based on lead white extended with glass particles and carbon black, above which is a subsequent priming layer of lead white and glass particles, toned with the overlying paint layers.

The understanding of the original materials and the arrangement of the folds in the lower part of the Virgin's mantle was difficult, due to its deteriorated conditions and the overpaints; it was therefore necessary to investigate the mantle in great detail, not only for the alteration of its intensity and saturation and the many overpaints, but also due to the stratification of the several original layers.

The XRF investigations revealed in fact extremely variable results, as some of the overpaints, presumably the oldest, showed a composition coherent with the materials of the original layers.

Azurite is present in about half of the investigated points, and it is probably associated with the first layer of blue, then followed by a second layer based on lapis lazuli.

In the lower part of the mantle, the absence of a first blue layer containing copper, and a higher presence of red, would seem to indicate the mantle had not initially been foreseen in this area, as here was a part of the Virgin's robe. It is probable that in concomitance with the first version of Saint Joseph and of the young Saint John, the draperies of Virgin’s mantle revealed the robe painted with red lake, now partially evident only beneath the sleeve of Saint Anne. In the final version of the painting, a fold containing azurite completing the mantle is painted above a part of the first version of the young Saint John’s figure.

The traction of the overlying paint layers and cleaning interventions of the past, probably carried out to try and reveal the figures below, as well as extensive losses of paint layers, have all contributed to the current conservation conditions, difficult to understand. Samples taken from the blue mantle, in the upper part of the veil and in the central part of the mantle, reveal two different layers. In the sample taken from the upper part of the veil there are ancient overpaints, whilst in the sample from the central part of the mantle, the flesh tones of the underlying figure can be seen, covered with azurite and ultramarine blue.

The mantle in the underlying figure of Saint Joseph is painted with yellow pigments containing lead and tin, also evident in the XRF area scanning, which shows how this figure had been highly defined and painted before the change of the painting’s composition.

The curtain behind the figures was realized with copper-based pigments. In order to obtain its transparency, copper resinate layers were applied, thus obtaining also the saturation of the green curtain. The practice of applying glazes of a transparent colour over a base layer in order to obtain a particular effect of brightness is common and mentioned in the treatises of the period.

Under the pink robe of the young female Saint there is a green layer, which can be seen in the parts where the pink layers are thinner; the green underlayer has been intentionally exploited between the connections of different colour areas in order to enhance the pink robe of the young Saint.

The layers containing copper, already detected in the spot XRF analysis, were particularly evident in the XRF imaging scan of the entire painting. The haloes are realized with shell gold.

 

Intervention/Restoration work

The first step consisted in undertaking a surface cleaning of the painting without affecting the varnish, with the finality of trying to enhance the artwork’s legibility, without having to undergo a complete restoration. Unfortunately, the operation did not yield such result, as the removal of the surface dirt, carried out with a neutral pH fatty emulsion, revealed that the underlying varnish layers were discoloured.  

The possibility of a carrying out a cleaning intervention was thus evaluated, for an improved legibility of the artwork and finalised also towards the intervention on the support, as it was first necessary to remove, from the joints of the planks, old fillings and overpaints, as these did not allow a correct realignment of the planks, along the original paint layers.

The removal of the fillings and overpaints along the union of two planks was carried out mechanically, with a scalpel, under the microscope; contextually it was also possible to retrieve some small fragments of the original paint layers. The previous fillings had not only infilled the losses of colour but had levelled out the difference of levels between the joining of two planks, mounting upon the original layers.

In the intervention on the support carried out in the 1980s, the joint of the planks had been reconnected with V-shaped inserts, and a grey oil paint had been removed from the back of the artwork, some fragments of which could still be seen. The crossbars had been reinserted in their tracks, reconstructing the parts that fit into the support. The removal of the grey paint, which evidently had an insulating purpose for the back of the painting, and the application of extremely rigid crossbars, as well as the microclimatic excursions the artwork had undergone, had produced over time a contrast between the support, which tends to curve, and the crossbars with the resulting disconnection of the planks.

Considering the limits of the old intervention carried out on the support, the current restoration project foresaw the extraction of the crossbars and the removal of the V-shaped inserts, reopening the disconnection between the planks. The parts with the previous inserts were then reconstructed, with antique wood chosen for quality, fibre and cut, reconnecting the joint along the edges of the original paint layers inserting small glued V-shaped inserts. The planks were aligned trying to give a unique curving between the two elements of the support, and the existing crossbars were modified to adapt to the regular curving of the painting, making them elastic to reduce tensions in the support.

The crossbars were separated in their thickness between the part that fits into the support, made more elastic, and the rest of the structure. The two elements were then reconnected by means of screws and conical springs, in a mechanism with the springs inserted into the thickness of the crossbar. The screw inserted in the lower part of the crossbar hooks into a threaded bushing at the top of the conical spring. The pressure between the two parts of the crossbar is regulated by a screw allowing its elasticity control. The intervention on the support thus foresaw its practical realization with solutions helping an elastic control of the panel’s movements due to the exposure to environmental conditions.

Having completed the intervention on the support, the cleaning was then carried out, thinning in a differentiated and selective way the layers of varnish covering the painting. The intervention, in accordance with the methodology of our Institute, started from understanding the stratification of the materials to be removed or thinned, thanks to targeted investigations, whose results were compared with a precise analysis of the artwork’s surface, bearing in mind the problems encountered during the previous restorations. It was then possible to carry out preliminary solubility tests and proceed with appropriate solvent formulations first on small test areas.

Two selective samples were taken for the FTIR analysis: the spectrum showed the presence mainly of mastic resin, some siccative oil and very weak traces of calcium oxalate. The areas investigated where those in which there was a greater thickness of varnish: on the chin and on the headdress of Saint Anne. The tests to individuate the appropriate solvents for the subsequent cleaning operation indicated that the varnish and present overpaints were mainly natural resin based and therefore removable with a solvent that could selectively remove or thin the materials. 

The cleaning was carried out using a mixture of low-polarity solvents (Fd 68, consisting of 47% ligroin, 35% ethanol, 18% benzyl alcohol), used on its own or in a neutral pH supporting wax emulsion, acting progressively on the varnish. The progressive and differentiated thinning of the varnish allowed to retrieve the painting’s chromatic tones and balance of the different levels, taking into account the different aging of the lighter and darker parts, due to different quantity ratios between the pigments and binder. The cleaning intervention retrieved the tonal passages of the painting and the depth of the planes of the composition. Proceeding with different stages of thinning, always documented and verified during the work under ultraviolet fluorescence, it was possible to retrieve, for example, the volume of the draperies of the green curtain with blue inner pleats, which were previously completely flattened, and now emerge with their delicate verdigris glazes.

The cleaning of the robe of the young Saint enhanced not only the glazes of red lake, but also a green underlayer, revealing how the figure was painted upon a pre-existing outline of the green curtain. On the headdress of Saint Anne two different shades of white allowed to understand, also in visible light, the change in the arrangement of its folds. During the cleaning of the fleshtones, the compact texture of the faces of the Virgin, of the Child and of the young Saint was retrieved, opposed to the more dull colour and complexion of Saint Anne, in which the dark ground and priming layers are intentionally left showing through.

The many ancient overpaints on the Virgin’s veil, which were difficult to remove with solvents, and the lacunae on the lower part of her mantle, corresponding to the underlying figure of the young Saint John, were of complicated interpretation. The ancient restorations on the Virgin’s veil were left on the surface, whilst the dark patina on the shaded parts of the mantle was removed, revealing large areas of abrasion with the transparency of the underlying red lake. The overpaints on the lower part of the mantle were removed and it was possible to see the mantle’s fold. The red near the Virgin's hand, even after the removal of the old restorations, maintained a non-defined design.

With the filling intervention, the difference of level of the lacunae was filled as well as the joint of the two planks. On the losses, the texture and surface micro-reliefs were recreated in order to connect the fillings brought to level. In the lower part of the painting and on the joint of the planks, the deformations of the support and the uneven surface of the paint layers are still visible even after the filling intervention. This is more evident due to the retrieval of the almost enamel-like appearance of certain parts of the painting, after cleaning.

The inpainting, first carried out with watercolour paints, then chromatically toned to the adjacent parts with varnish paints - Gamblin Conservation Colors ©, was carried out using the method of the selezione cromatica. The aim of the intervention was to reconnect the lacunae without totally cancelling the changes associated to the painter’s afterthoughts and variations associated to the nature of the artwork itself. 

The varnishing was carried out with natural mastic resin, applied with a brush after the watercolour inpainting, and sprayed at the end of the intervention.


The Madonna dell'Impannata was exhibited after the restoration at the "Raphael" exhibition at the Albertina Museum in Vienna (29 September 2017 - 7 January 2018): https://www.albertina.at/en/exhibitions/raphael/


Summary Colophon

The restoration was carried out by the Easel Paintings Depatment of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure e Laboratori di Restauro, Florence in 2015-2017. 

Directors of the Restoration: Marco Ciatti and Cecilia Frosinini

Technical direction and restoration: for the paint layers Luisa Gusmeroli, for the wooden support Ciro Castelli

X-ray: Alfredo Aldrovandi (OPD), Ottavio Ciappi
VIS-NIR Scanner Reflectography: Roberto Bellucci (OPD) and Raffaella Fontana, Marco Barucci, Marco Raffaelli, Enrico Pampaloni, Iana Striova (INO-CNR)
X-ray Fluorescence: Pietro Moioli and Claudio Seccaroni (ENEA, Rome)
X-ray Fluorescence imaging: Laura Cartechini, Francesca Rosi, Costanza Miliani (Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari - ISTM, CNR- Perugia)
Morphological analysis under microscope, SEM-EDS and Spectrophotometry: Carlo Lalli and Giancarlo Lanterna (OPD)

Photographic investigations: Ottaviano Caruso

Bibliography

L. Gusmeroli, On the restoration of the Madonna dell'Impannata, in Raphael, exhibition catalogue, edited by Achim Gnann, Munchen, Hirmer, 2018. pp. 242-243

International conference RAFFAELS ZEICHNUNGEN at the Albertina in Vienna, 21 and 22 November 2017. Cecilia Frosinini and Luisa Gusmeroli: "Il restauro della Madonna dell’impannata di Raffaello: nuove indagini e nuove ricerche per la comprensione dell’opera ".

Cecilia Frosinini and Luisa Gusmeroli, Il restauro della Madonna dell'impannata di Raffaello: nuove indagini e nuove ricerche per la comprensione dell'opera, in Raffaello disegnatore-Raffael als Zeichner, conference proceedings, eds. M. Faietti, A. Gnann, Giunti Editore, May 2019, pp.194-218

Marco Ciatti, Ciro Castelli, Cecilia Frosinini, Luisa Gusmeroli, Laura Cartechini, Francesca Rosi, Claudio Seccaroni, Costanza Miliani, Pietro Moioli, Il restauro della Madonna dell'Impannata di Raffaello, delle Gallerie degli Uffizi, Galleria Palatina di Palazzo Pitti, OPD Restauro - 29 - (2017) pp. 48-90